Upstream of Ambikol, the large island of Turmukki (Turmukke) seems not to have had any permanant settlement by the 1960s. There was however much evidence for medieval (Christian) settlement on the island, as well as several prehistoric sites. The most promienent of the medieval sites was an example of a medieval ‘tower-house’ near the western (upstream) end of the island (site 16-U-1), commanding excellent views along the river. Noted by a number of 19th century travellers (such as Linant de Bellefonds) this was registered as a site in 1964, and examined by the West German DAI archaeological team who were operating in this area in February-March 1968 (for a brief English language report: see Dinkler 1985). These photographs give a sense of how prominent such structures could be. There were two other similar, if less well-preserved, tower-houses on the island, as well as a number of other medieval settlements and cemeteries, mostly investigated by the ASSN team directed by Lars Gezelius.